One of the intermediate products in the glycolysis. It is produced from glyceraldehyde triphosphate by removing an hydrogen and adding phosphate with the catalysis of glyceraldehyde triphosphate dehydrogenase.
A kind of right-handed helical structure of polypeptide chains, in which every amino acid residue forms a hydrogen bond to the two residues earlier amino acid. In practice, this structure has never been observed, because of the steric hindrance. The general expression is 2.2_7 helix, which means it proceeds 2.2 residues per helical turn and the number of atoms in the ring that is closed by the hydrogen bond is seven.
A kind of right-handed helical structure of polypeptide chains, in which every amino acid residue forms a hydrogen bond to the three residues earlier amino acid. This structure has a little steric hindrance and then has rarely observed at the end of alpha helices. The general expression is 3_10 helix, which means it proceeds three residues per helical turn and the number of atoms in the ring that is closed by the hydrogen bond is ten.
A congenital disease which caused by the lack of catalase gene. The symptom is progressive gangrenous oral ulcer. It also called acatalasia or Takahara's disease.
A enzyme involving in amino acid synthesis. Its EC number is 126.96.36.199. The inhibitor of this enzyme such as sulfonylurea is used for herbicide.
A acetyl ester of coline which is one of the neurotransmitter. In animals, it is released from the end of the neuron at the synapse, which exists between two neurons, or at the endplate, which between neuron and muscle fiber, to stimulate the parasympathetic nerve, and then it causes the physiological action such as falling in blood pressure, muscle contraction, and so on. In vivo, it is synthesized from a coline and an acetyl CoA by catalyzing of acetyltransferase.
An acetyl derivative of coenzyme a. It acts as acetyl group donor and is involved in various metabolic reaction, such as glycolysis, citric acid cycle, biosynthesis of acetylcholine, beta oxidation of lipid, and so on.
A therapeutic drug for herpesvirus infection. It inhibits the function of virus DNA polymerase. The IUPAC name is 2-amino-9-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)-1H-purin-6(9H)-one.
A infectious disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The immune system is destroyed to present various opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis infection, and Kaposi's sarcoma etc.
Protein that forms actin filaments in all eukaryotic cells. The globular monomer and the filamentous polymer are sometimes called G-actin and F-actin, respectively. In muscle, forms actomyosin together with myosin filament and plays a major role in muscle
A group of gram-positive bacteria belonging in Actinomycetales. It's name is from the radial morphology of mycelia. But some actinomycetes don't have such morphology and excluded from it. There are various actinomycete, such as antibiotic producing, nitrogen fixation, pathogen, and so on.
A kind of exotoxin which destroys cytoskeletons to kill cells. It is produced by bacteria causing diarrhea related antibiotics.
One of the immune systems which is found only in the vertebrates. At first, it acts slower than innate immunity. But it memorize the antigen and acts faster to the specific target after the next time. There are two types of adaptive immunity, cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity.
A nucleotide which consists of ribose, a kind of furanose, adenine, a kind of base, and two phosphates. It often means the Adenosine 5'-DiPhosphate which is the adenosine bound to a pyrophosphate at the 5' position and abbreviate as ADP. Derived from ATP by hydrolysis of terminal phosphate. Turns to ATP again by oxidative phosphorylation.
Virus belonging in the I group, Adenoviridae family, which have their genome in double strand DNA (dsDNA). It has an icosahedral capsid. In this group, it is known about fifty kinds of viruses with pathogenicity for human such as pneumonia, pharyngoconjunctival fever, and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.
A endocrine organ which composes the outer part of the adrenal gland. It secretes several kinds of adrenal cortex hormone.
A general term of steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex. It can be classified into glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid.
A endocrine organ which exists beside of the kidney of vertebrate. It consist of two parts, adrenal medulla composing the inner part and adrenal cortex composing the outer part.
A tissue which constitutes the core part of adrenal gland. It secrets adrenaline or noradrenaline by the stimulation of autonomic nerve.
"Material which is secreted from the adrenal medulla. It also secrets from the adrenergic neuron and acts as neurotransmitter. It induces the excited state such as the heart rate raising, blood pressure raising, blood glucose level raising. and pupillary dilatation etc. The IUPAC name is the 4-(2-Amino-1-hydroxyethyl) benzene-1,2-diol."
A protein which exists at the surface of cells and accepts the adrenaline, a kind of neurotransmitter. As binding to the adrenaline, it directs for each part of inside of the cell to prepare for defence, according to the function of the cell. This molecule is introduced in the 100th article of Molecule of the Month.
A hormone which acts on adrenal cortex to secret the adrenal cortex hormone. It secrets from anterior pituitary, and the corticotropin-releasing hormone promotes the secretion of this hormone.
Jellyfish belonging in the Cnidaria phylum, Hydrozoa class, Leptomedusae order, and Aequoreidae family. If it is stimulated, Its gonad emits bluish white light by the act of green fluorescent protein (GFP).
Luminescent protein found in the Aequorea, a kind of luminescent jellyfish. It emits blue light by the raising of Ca2+ concentration.
An South African aquatic flog of Pipidae, Xenopus genus. It is studied as a model organism. The scientific name is Xenopus laevis.
A infectious disease caused by African sleeping sickness protozoa Trypanosoma brucei which transmitted by the tsetse fly. The first symptoms are high fever and headaches etc. The invasion into the central nervous system causes coma and sleeping.
A agent which has affinity to a specific cell receptor and similar effects such as neurotransmitter or hormone.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It has methyl group in its sidechain. The abbreviates are Ala or A.
A general term of proteins which exists in cells and body fluid. The name derives from albumen (egg white) which is mainly composed of this proteins. There are several kinds of albumin, such as serum albumin in blood serum besides egg albumin. It plays roles such as osmotic pressure regulation and material transportation etc.
Organic compound containing aldehyde group (-CHO). Can be oxidized to an acid or reduced to an alcohol.
An excessive immune reaction against an antigen.
A regulation of protein function by binding an other molecule (called effector molecule) to the other site of protein's functional site (called allosteric site). The binding causes the conformational change to the protein to regulate it's function. It also called to allosteric regulation. The enzyme regulated by this method is called the allosteric enzyme.
A kind of right-handed helical structure of polypeptide chains, in which every amino acid residue forms a hydrogen bond to the four residues earlier amino acid. The hydrogen bonds of it exist inner side of the backbone to be stabilized. Moreover, it has steric favourable structure, resulting that it is an often observed secondary structure in proteins. The general expression is 3.6_13 helix, which means it proceeds 3.6 residues per helical turn and the number of atoms in the ring that is closed by the hydrogen bond is thirteen.
A kind of dementia with symptoms of lower cognition ability etc. In pathology, senile plaques are found in the cerebral cortex. The plaques are derived from deposition of beta amyloid. The ICD-10 ID is G30.
Organic compound or functional group that contains nitrogen as the core atom. Derived from ammonia (NH3) in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents. Monovalent amine is called amino group.
A kind of organic compound which includes both an amino group (-NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH) in its molecule. Most of amino acids are alpha amino acids, of which amino group and carboxyl group bind to the same carbon atom, and each of them links by the peptide bonds to form proteins or peptide chains. Generally, proteins consist of twenty kinds of amino acids, including proline, an imino acid.
Weakly basic functional group derived from ammonia (NH3) in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituent. In aqueous solution it can accept a proton and carry a positive charge.
One end of a polypeptide chain that carries a free alpha-amino group. Also called N terminal (terminus). The amino acid sequence (primary structure) of a protein is described from amino terminal.
Abbreviation of Adenosine 5'-MonoPhosphate. One of the four nucleotides in an RNA molecule.
A general term of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of glycoside bonds of starch to produce oligosaccharide or monosaccharide. It includes several enzymes such as alpha-amylase (EC 188.8.131.52), beta-amylase (EC 184.108.40.206), glucoamylase (EC 220.127.116.11) etc.
A kind of insoluble fibrous protein which tends to aggregation. The deposition to organs causes the amyloidosis etc.
A kind of starch consisting of glucose units. The units bind with alpha-1,4 glycoside bonds and with alpha-1,6 glycoside bonds which make branches in the molecule.
A kind of starch consisting of glucose units. The units bind with alpha-1,4 glycoside bonds sequentially.
This is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, which causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body. In Japan, it is assigned to an intractable disease. It is also called to Lou Gehrig's disease, which is named for the namesake famous person. The cause of it has been unidentifiable. though the genomic disorder of SuperOxide Dismutase (SOD) is involved in it for a part of patients. The ID of ICD-10 is G12.2.
Acute systemic irritable reaction caused by IgE antibody.
A general term of steroid hormone that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates.
A type of sexual reproduction that the size of gametes is different each other. It can be found in animals and so on.
To make two single nucleic strand into one double strand. It is indispensable for making double strands that the sequences of each single strand are complementary, and such feature makes it possible to measure the complementation.
A genus of insect belonging to the Diptera order, Culicidae family. It includes species which mediate malaria.
1) See "Bacillus" for the bacterial name. 2) A fatal disease which caused by Bacillus anthracis. It may by caught from animals, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep and has high
Substance that inhibits or abolishes the growth of microorganisms. Usually a product of a particular microorganism or plant. penicillin or streptomycin is known.
One relative orientation of the two strands. The polarity of one strand is oriented in the opposite direction to that of the other. Seen in the double helix of DNA, and secondary structure of proteins.
Form of controlled cell death shown in multicellular organism. It is also called "programmed cell death". A "suicide" program is activated within the cell, leading to fragmentation of the DNA, shrinkage of the cytoplasm, membrane changes and cell death without lysis or damage to neighboring cells.
A transmembrane protein which selectively conducts water molecules in and out of the cell.
A organism group included in prokaryote. Compose one of three organism domains together with eubacteria and eukaryote. The "archaea (archea)" is a plural form, while the singular form is "archaeon (archeon)".
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the basic polar sidechain amino acid. The abbreviates are Arg or R.
A protein which has mRNA cleaving activity. It is indispensable for RNAi and forms the active site of catalyzing in RISC (RNA-Induced Silencing Complex）
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral polar sidechain amino acid. The side chain is -CH2-CONH2. The abbreviates are Asn or N.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the acidic polar sidechain amino acid. The side chain is -CH2-CONH2. The abbreviates are Asp or D.
A kind of glia cell exists in central nervous system. Its name is derived from its shape with rich protrusions.
A central atom (usually carbon) which covalently bound four kinds of atoms or functional group that are different each other. It causes the chirality of the molecule.
A chemical component derived from a ribose, a kind of sugar, bound to adenine, a kind of purine base, at the 1' position, and bound to three sequenced phosphate groups at the 5' position. It often utilizes as energy carrier in various organisms. The phosphodiester bond is unstable and easily serves free energy by bond hydrolysis or transferring. It is the acronym of Adenosine 5'-TriPhosphate.
Chromosome with no involvement in sexuality decision. Any chromosome except for sex chromosomes.
A infectious disease which occurs among birds caused by the infection of type A influenza viruses.
A kind of glycoprotein which is specifically secreted from nerve cells. It is involved in the development of nerve system.
Type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies. Plays an central role in humoral immunity, a kind of acquired immunity.
A gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium which causes the anthrax disease. It is often found in soil, coated with capsule, and lack of flagella or cilia. When the circumstance gets worse, it makes endospore to endure.
A kind of eubacteria belonging in the Bacillus genus. It is facultative aerobic gram-positive and causes food poisoning.
A gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging the Haemophilus genus. It is not directly involved in the influenza disease. Although there are various kind of it, the type b is most common and causes meningitis and pneumonia to infant children.
A gram-positive obligate aerobe eubacteria which is commonly found in nature. The Bacillus subtilis natto utilized for the natto production is a kind of subspecies.
The core part of linear molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. It means the part consisting of alpha carbon atoms and peptide bonds in proteins, and sugar and phosphate in nucleic acids.
A kind of virus which parasitizes bacteria as hosts and grow in them.
A virus classification proposed by David Baltimore, who is a molecular biologist of America. By the classification, viruses are classified into seven groups. The current virus classification governed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is based on it. The seven classifications are described below: I.dsDNA (double strand DNA), II.ssDNA (single strand DNA), III.dsRNA (double strand RNA), IV.(+)ssRNA (single strand (+) sense RNA (mRNA)), V.(-)ssRNA (single strand (-) sense RNA (template RNA)), VI.ssRNA-RT (reverse transcribing single strand (+) sense RNA), and VII.dsDNA-RT (reverse transcribing double strand DNA).
Thin membrane exist between the epithelia and connective tissue.
A general term of chemical compounds which accept protons or donate electrons. Nucleobases such as purine bases and pyrimidine bases are sometimes referred to simply as bases.
A shellfish belonging to the Mollusca phylum, the Bivalvia class, and Pectinidae family. It is edible.
A kind of partial structure of proteins, which consists of several beta sheets, forming cylindrical structure. It is often found in molecule transporting proteins such as porins.
A secondary structure of protein. The different sections of the peptide chain align parallel and are bound by hydrogen bonds each other.
A luminescent phenomena by organisms. A type of energy form with light emission.
A kind of teleost belonging to the Perciformes order, Sparidae family. It habitat the east Asia coast, and is edible. It is also called chinu.
An algorithm comparing two DNA base sequences or protein amino acid sequences to know local sequence homology. Programs with the algorithm are also called with same name. It can be used at various sites such as NCBI Website.
A kind of body fluids of animals. It plays roles such as supplying oxygen and nutrients to each cell of the body, retrieving carbon dioxide and waste products, immunity, and so on. It consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, blood plasma etc.
A general term of free cells which found in blood. It includes two types, erythrocyte with respiratory pigment, and leukocyte without respiratory pigment.
A general term of compounds which is involved in the blood coagulation, such as fibrinogen and prothrombin.
The liquid component of the blood. In vertebrate, It is equivalent to the blood which removed the solid components.
A structure database of biological macro molecules determined by means of NMR. It is a member of world wide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) whose name is the acronym of Biological Magnetic Resonance data Bank. It is managed by BioMagResBank at University of Wisconsin-Madison.
A Gram-negative eubacteria belonging to Beta Proteobacteria class, Burkholderiales order, and Alcaligenaceae family. It causes pertussis.
A type of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE), which causes the formation of cavity in brain. In Japan, it is assigned to a domestic animal's disease in the law. It is suggested the abnormally structured prion proteins will cause it.
Protein appears in blood according to the inflammation or tissue damage. It's name is derived from its feature of binding to the C polysaccharide of pneumococci.
A plant which only has the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation pathway of photosynthesis.
A plant which has two steps of pathways for carbon fixation pathway of photosynthesis. The one is the Calvin cycle, and the other is the C4 pathway for concentration of carbon dioxide.
A member of family of proteins which mediates cell-cell adhesion in animal tissues. The function depends on calcium ion (Ca2+), therefore it's name. This molecule is introduced in the 99th article of Molecule of the Month.
A invertebrate organism belonging in the Nematoda phylum, Secernentea class, Rhabditida order, and Caenorhabditis genus. It is used as a model organism.
Alkaloid included in coffee, tea, and so on. It has effects of awake and diuretic.
A family of calcium-binding protein controlled by intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration. It is ubiquitous and modifies the activity of target enzymes and membrane transport proteins.
A part of photosynthesis pathway. During this cycle, sugar is made from carbon dioxide by utilizing NADPH and ATP produced in light pathway.
A plant which has two steps of pathways for carbon fixation pathway of photosynthesis. The one is the Calvin cycle, and the other is the CAM pathway. In night stomas are opened to uptake carbon dioxide and water. Whereas in day, the carbon fixation runs not opening stomas but using stored carbon components. This type of plant has strong tolerance for drying.
Spontaneously growing low-differentiated epithelial cell clusters (tumors), which is derived from autologous cells, and has expanding feature such as invasion and metastasis. It causes gene damage and so on.
Protein shell enveloping genetic materials of a virus. Often form helical or icosahedral structure. Consists of several protein subunits.
One end of a polypeptide chain that carries a free alpha-carboxyl group. Also called C terminal (terminus). Locates in the end of amino acid sequence (primary structure) of a protein.
Fish belonging in the Cyprinidae family, and the Cyprinus genus. It's scientific name is Cyprinus carpio.
A enzyme which catalyzes the reaction converting a hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. It contributes to removing harmful active oxygen. The EC number is 18.104.22.168. The gene CAT encoding this enzyme located on the p13 of 11th chromosome.
Disease of eyes lens opacity, and lost transparency. There are some types, congenital and a posterior etc.
A database which classified proteins based on their structural feature. It's name is the acronym of the major four classification hierarchies, Class, Architecture, Topology, and Homologous superfamily. It is managed by University College London (UCL) in UK. http://www.cathdb.info/
An abbreviation of the Cluster of Differentiation or the Cluster of Determination. It is a classification of monoclonal antibodies by its properties to various antigens on the surface of cells (mainly blood cells).
Protein on the surface of an animal cell that mediates binding between cell and cell or between cell and extracellular matrix. Abbreviates as CAM.
Reproductive cycle of a cell. The orderly sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its contents and divides into two. It is also called cell-division cycle.
Phenomenon that a mother cell separates into two or more daughter cells. In eukaryotic cells, the division of the nucleus (mitosis) followed by the division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis).
Specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
Extracellular matrix exists on outer surface of cell membrane. Works as structural enhancement of cell. Found in plants, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae cells, whereas not found in animal and protists cells.
A kind of adaptive immunity. Immunity effect that activates antigen specific T cells which kill infected cells and tumor cells, activate macrophages and natural killer cells (NK cells) destroying intracellular pathogens, and so on.
Enzyme that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose. Produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoan. The EC number is 22.214.171.124. Related entry: xPSSS:1JS4]].
Polysaccharide consisting of linear sequenced glucose connected with beta 1,4-glycosidic bonds. Main component of cell wall of plant cell, and serves the cell structure enhancement.
A compound of sphingoid bound to a fatty acid by acid amid bond. A kind of sphingolipid.
Protein that assists folding of other proteins. Prevents misfolding in order not to produce inactive or aggregated polypeptides.
A kind of cytokine involved in move inducing of cells. In many case, it contains four cysteine residues forming disulfide bonds.
A molecular feature that there is its enantiomer.
A kind of photosynthetic pigment included in the chloroplasts of plants and cyanobacteria. It has one magnesium atom at the center of tetrapyrrol ring. There are several types with the different type of tetrapyrrol ring or binding of long chain alcohol (phytol) etc.
Organelle found in green algae and plant cells that contains chlorophyll and conducts photosynthesis. It is a class of organelle known as a plastid.
Complex of DNA and proteins such as histones. Exists in nucleus of eukaryotic cell and in nucleoid of prokaryotic cell. Before M (mitotic) phase of the cell division, packed up into a more compact structure.
A rod like structure composed of DNA molecule and associated proteins (histone). Especially evident in plant and animal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis.
A DNA strand whose both ends are joined to form cyclic shape. It is found in prokaryote and plasmids.
A part of metabolic pathway of aerobic organisms for obtaining energy. In the cycle, acetyl group derived from organic compounds of intaken foods is oxdized, resulting to produce energy and by-product, such as carbon dioxide and water. In eukaryote cells it occurs in the mitochondria.
A classification layer of protein structural classification in the SCOP.
A hierarchy of biological taxonomy. It is the upper layer of order and the lower layer of phylum or division.
Protein which is involved in endocytosis (uptaking materials from outside to inside of a cell). Consists of two kind of subunits, H chain and L chain. Three H chains and three L chains aggregate to form a three-legged structure (triskelion) and then they assemble the surface of inner side of cell membrane to form basketlike convex structure.
A intracellular vesicle formed by proteins such as clathrin. Formed in the process of uptaking materials into a cell by endocytosis. It becomes into an endosome by removing clathrins.
A kind of bacteria whose shape is globose. The plural form is "cocci".
The role of gene to direct the amino acid sequence of proteins. That is, the gene codes the protein.
Three sequenced nucleotides each of which direct an amino acid of proteins. It is included in DNA or mRNA. The relation between codon and amino acid is common in almost all organisms.
A kind of structural domain (super secondary structure) of proteins. More than one alpha helices twist each other to form coiled coil formation.
Alkaloid included in the seed and rhizome of meadow saffron of Liliaceae family. It is used not only as therapeutic drug of rheumatoid and gout, but also breed improvement and production of seedless watermelon, utilizing the property of inducing chromosome doubling in cell division. It also has strong toxicity. These effects are derived from the inhibiting act to the tubulin, major protein component of the microtubule.
Protein often seen in extracellular matrix and connective tissues. Rich in glycine and proline. Often constructs left-handed helix and three of it coil around each other and turn into right-handed triple-stranded helical rod, called tropocollagen.
A general term of tissue which lies between other tissue, to fill the intercellular space, to maintain the structure, and so on. Cells in it contain rich extracellular matrix. It includes bone, cartilage, blood, and so on.
Hormone secreted from the hypothalamus, and acts to the anterior lobe of hypothalamohypophyseal to prompt the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
"A kind of the glucocorticoid. The IUPAC name is 17,21-dihydroxypregn -4-ene-3,11,20-trione."
State of organisms with almost no metabolism. They take it to tolerant severe circumstance by storing trehalose in their body. The well known organism to do it is the water bear.
A structural protein which forms the primary component of the eye lens.
Insect belonging in the Diptera order, Culicidae family, and Culex genus. It is a mosquito mediating the Japanese encephalitis virus.
A disease caused by the excessive secretion of glucocorticoid, one of the adrenal cortex hormone. The major symptoms are obesity, muscle weakness, hypertension, diabetes similar symptom, osteoporosis. It is induced by the abnormality of the adrenal gland or the pituitary gland.
A kind of gymnosperm belonging in the Cycadaceae family, Cycas genus.
Nucleotide generated from ATP by adenylyl cyclase. Stimulation to cell-surface receptors activate its producing. Act as intracellular signalling molecule.
Protein family controlling cell cycle progression. Complexed with cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) to activate its function proceeding one stage of the cell cycle to the next. Different cyclin acts each cell cycle step.
A hydrophobic amino acid including a sulfur atom in the side chain. It contributes the protein stabilization by forming disulfide bonds between two molecules of it. The abbreviation is Cys, or C.
Redox active protein that is colored, included heme iron at the core, Exists in many organisms, and carries electrons in electron transport chain such as aerobic respiration and photosynthesis.
Extracellular signalling protein between cells. Although there are many types of them, most are involved in immunity or inflammation.
Division process of cytoplasm following the division of nucleus in eukaryotic cell division.
System which contributes to maintain the cell shape and to move. Exists in cytoplasm, and consists of filament proteins such as actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules, and so on. Formerly, it was thought that only the eukaryotes have it. But it has shown that the prokaryotes also have it. PubMed:16959967]]
It also called killer T cell or CTL. It recognizes class I MHC on the target cell mediated the specific T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and kills the target. It has CD8 as the cell surface antigen.
A unit of molecular mass. Approximately equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom (1.66 x 10-24 g).
A part of photosynthesis pathway of carbon fixation. It utilizes electrons and ATP produced in the light reaction.
An infectious disease which mainly found in the tropical region. The major symptoms of it is headache, fever, and blooding.
Virus belonging in the IV group (+ssRNA), Flaviviridae family, and Flavivirus genus. It causes the dengue fever.
Sugar which is composed of five carbon atoms and forms DNA molecules.
A psychiatric disorder which is accompanied by depression. For treatment, secreting stimulating medicine of neurotrarnsmitter is used.
In the RNA interference (RNAi), it is a protein which cleaves the foreign double strand RNA such as viruses to produces the small Interfering RNA (siRNA).
1) An organism which has two pairs of homologous genomes. In life cycle, it indicates the organism in diploid generation. 2) An organism which has two pairs of hetero genomes. It's number of chromosomes is two times many as the base number.
Covalent bond formed between two thiol groups (-SH) on cysteines. It contributes the conformational stability of proteins.
Abbreviation of DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. It acts as the store of hereditary information within a cell and the carrier of this information from generation to generation. Consists of a kind of sugar 2'-deoxyribose bound to a phosphate at 3' position and a ba
Enzyme that synthesizes a new DNA strand by joining nucleotides together using a DNA template strand as a guide.
In biological taxonomy, this is the new highest hierarchy which is higher than kingdom, formerly highest hierarchy, and proposed in the Carl Woese's three-domain system (1990). In this system, there are three domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota.
Fertilization form which is specific to angiosperm. It means the phenomenon that one of two sperm cells at the head of pollen tube fertilizes an egg cell and the other does an central cell. After fertilizing, one sperm nucleus coalesces to egg nucleus, and the other sperm nucleus coalesces two polar nuclei. The former is called reproductive fertilization, and the latter is called nutritional fertilization.
A small fly that belongs to Diptera order, Drosophilidae family, and Drosophila genus. The scientific name is Drosophila melanogaster. The number of chromosomes is 8. The sex-determination pattern is type XY. Feed fruit and so on. Used as model organism in various area of biology
Numerical classification for enzymes with four hierarchies, based on chemical reactions they catalyze. It is established by Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB).
A hydrophobic protein that forms extracellular extensible fibers (elastic fibers). It acts on tissues to enhance their stretchability and resilience.
A kind of stereoisomer which are mirror image each other.
Process to uptaking of material into a cell by an invagination of the cell membrane. Related word: clathrin
A labyrinthine membrane-enclosed organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Involved in synthesis and intracellular transportation of materials such as proteins and phospholipids.
A membrane-enclosed organelle included in most of eukaryotic cell. Carries materials uptaken by endocytosis. Related words: clathrin, lysosome
A kind of blood cell (hemocyte, . It plays a role to carry oxygen for each cell in body of organisms.
Hormone synthesized and secreted by the kidney, which stimulates production of erythrocytes (red blood cells).
A species of gram-negative bacteria whose shape are rodlike. They often utilize to biological studies, and to produce various chemical compounds by genetic introduction. This name is the scientific name of colon bacillus.
Amino acids which can't synthesize by itself and need to intake from foods. In human, they consists of nine kinds of amino acids, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, Trp, Thr, Lys, and His.
Organism which consists of one or more cells with a distinct nucleus and cytoplasm. Includes all kind of life except viruses and prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea). In three-domain system of organism classification, it composes one of the three domain , and includes four kingdom, Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and Protista.
A method to secret molecules in eukaryotic cells. Membrane-bounded vesicles included molecules fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents to outside.
A segment consists of a sequence of nucleotides that will be finally expressed to translate into protein . Usually exists adjacent to a noncoding DNA segment called an intron.
Production of an observable phenotype by gene. It is often directed by protein synthesis.
A general term which means outer side cellular structures created by cell secretion materials such as polysaccharide and protein. It includes cell wall of bacteria and plants, cuticle of insects, shell of mollusk, and so on.
A concept of group which includes similar proteins in function or structure.
A hierarchy of biological taxonomy. It is the upper layer of genus and the lower layer of order.
A long, whiplike structure protruded from cell. It drives the cell by moving undulately. The eukaryotic flagella are longer form of cilia, whereas the prokaryotic flagella have different construction and mechanism of action. The term "flagella" is the plural form.
A generic name of a small fly that belongs to the Diptera order, Drosophilidae family. It often means yellow fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), a species of it, which often used in genetic research.
A database of protein structural similarity. It is managed by EBI, European Bioinformatics Institute, using DALI algorithm. The URL is http://www.sander.ebi.ac.uk/dali/fssp/
A organism group consisting of a kingdom in biological taxonomy. It is a heterotrophic eukaryotic organism, which has chitinous cell wall. It includes yeast, mushroom, mold, and so on. The singular form is fungus.
A haploid cell specialized for producing zygote by fertilization or mating. It can classify into two types, anisogamy and isogamy. Animals have anisogamy, and the larger and immotile one is called female gamete (ovum, egg), whereas the smaller and motile one is called male gamete (spermatozoon, sperm).
A cell which is divided into gametocyte (ovum or spermatocyte) by meiosis. Derived from gametogonium by mitosis.
A cell which is divided into gametocytes by mitosis. Included in germline.
A glycolipid bound one or more sialic acid. It is one of the component of cell membranes, and is especially rich in the cell membrane of nerve cell.
A thesaurus database for unifying terms of genetic products. It is managed with the Gene Ontology consortium which consists of many organism's databases. Terms are classified into three structured categories, biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. http://www.geneontology.org/
A process to repress the gene expression. There are two types, in transcription and in post-transcription.
A hierarchy of biological taxonomy. It is the upper layer of species and the lower layer of family.
A cell produced from gametocyte (oocyte and spermatocyte) by meiosis. This cell turns to a gamete (egg and sperm).
A general term which refers to cells involving reproduction in organisms. Genetic mutations in these cells will be passed to next generations. The other cells are called somatic cells.
A general term which means all the cells except for nerve cells. It plays various roles such as fixation and insulation of nerve cells. There are various types such as oligodendroglia cell, astrocyte, microglia cell, schwann cell and so on.
A general term of polysaccharide whose monosaccharide unit is glucose. There are many types of glucans according to the difference of their bond type. For example, the amylose bound with alpha-1,4 bonds, the glycogen bound with alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 bonds, and the cellulose bound with beta-1,4 bonds.
A adrenal cortex hormone which secreted from the adrenal cortex. It is a kind of steroid hormone which acts on the facilitation of proteins and lipids degradation, antiinflammation, stress response, and so on.
Monosaccharide with six carbons which plays a major role in the metabolism of living cells. Stored in polymeric form as glycogen in animal cells and as starch in plant cells.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It classified into the acidic polar sidechain amino acid. The abbreviates are Glu or G.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It classified into the neutral polar sidechain amino acid. The abbreviates are Gln or Q.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is the only amino acid which has no asymmetric carbon. The abbreviates are Gly or G.
Polysaccharide which is utilized to energy store in animals. Sugar chain which composed of D-glucose units linked by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds also makes alpha-1.6 bonds every about ten glucose residues. It results many blanched structure.
A lipid molecule bound to sugar residues or sugar chain at the polar headgroup. Exist in the surface of biological membranes and is involved in various functions.
A metabolic pathway to get energy by degrading glucoses. Most of all organisms utilize it in the cytosol. The degradation of this pathway is incomplete, and the other oxidative pathway (citric acid cycle and electron transport chain) is necessary to derive more energy
A protein complexed with one or more oligosaccharide chains covalently linked to amino-acid side chains. Most secreted proteins and most proteins exposed on the outer surface of the cell membrane are glycoproteins.
The process of adding one or more sugars to a lipid or a protein molecule.
A organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It is composed of membrane-bounded sacs. It processes and sorts proteins and lipids transported from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Fluorescent protein found in luminescent organ of Aequorea victoria (a kind of jellyfish). It is often used to mark various compounds such as proteins, cells, and intracellular organella, because the marking with it makes easy to chase compounds.
A chemical compound of guanosine, which is one of the nucleoside, bound to three linear sequenced phosphates at the 5' position. Same as ATP, it releases large energy by hydrolytic cleavage of the end phosphate. It plays various physiological roles, such as material of RNA, aggregation of microtubule, protein synthesis, cell signalling.
A general term of protein with GTPase activity which hydrolysis a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and phosphate. It is involved in control various intercellular signal transmission by activate or inactivate other proteins.
A protein which binds to a GTP binding protein and inactivates it. It stimulates the GTPase activity of GTP binding protein to hydrolyze its bound GTP to GDP. On the contrary, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activates the GTP binding protein.
A protein which binds to a GTP binding protein and activates it. It releases the GDP molecule bound to the GTP binding protein to allow it to bind GTP in its place. On the contrary, the GTPase activating protein (GAP) inactivates the GTP binding protein.
An organism which has only one chromosome pair to maintain life. Most of animals, only the gametes are haploid.
A protein whose amount of production increases when cells, tissues, or individual of organisms suffer form temperature higher than normal circumstance. Other stresses such as heave metal, ethanol, and oxygen deficiency also induce its production to avoid the damage.
Enzyme that unwinds a double helix shaped nucleotide strand into two single strands.
A structural motif that often seen in gene regulating proteins.
A porphyrin divalent iron complex. It is the pigment of hemoglobin. It play roles of carrying oxygen in hemoglobin and carrying electron in cytochromes.
Respiratory pigment included in the blood of crustaceans and molluscs, containing copper atoms. It isn't included in blood cells but is solved in hemolymph, playing a role of oxygen transferring. The color without oxygen state (pentavalent copper) is colorless, whereas the color with oxygen state (divalent copper) is blue.
The main protein contained in red blood cells of vertebrate and some kinds of other organisms. It transports oxygen from the lung to the whole body and is tetramer consists of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. Each subunit contains heme, one porphyrin complex with divalent iron atom, which bound to oxygen. The normal hemoglobin (hemoglobin A) will change by the mutation in the sixth residue of beta subunit from glutamate to valine, to hemoglobin S causing sickle cell disease.
A kind of glucosaminoglycan produced by animal mast cells. It is a negative charged electrolyte polymer which is rich in the sulfate group and carboxyl group. It can found in liver as the blood coagulation inhibitor.
A general term of viruses which cause hepatitis, liver inflammation.
A family of DNA virus, belonging to the Ist group (double strand DNA (dsDNA)). It includes three subfamily, Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, Gammaherpesvirinae, and others.
Chemical component secreted from mast cells and basophils. The IUPAC name is 1H-imidazole-4-ethanamine. It is synthesized from a histidine amino acid by catalizing of histidine decarboxylase. It stimulates vasodilation, blood pressure reduction, and smooth muscle contraction etc. The over secretion causes allergic symptom.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the basic polar sidechain amino acid, and has a imidazole ring in its sidechain. It is one of the human essential amino acid. The abbreviates are His or H.
A reverse transcribing virus belonging to Retroviridae family, Lentifirus genus.
A noncovalent bond which joins between a positive charged hydrogen atom and two negative charged atoms. It is stronger than the van der Waals force, weaker than the covalent bond and ion bond. It contributes the structural stability of molecules.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of a chemical bond. It is classified into the EC 3 group.
A system to exclude exogenous or endogenous foreign bodies for maintaining the homeostasis of host animal. It can classify innate immunity and acquired immunity.
A kind of antibody molecule abbreviated Ig. In higher bertebrates, there are five kinds , IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each of Ig has different roles in the immune response.
A infectious disease caused by influenza virus. The symptoms of it is high fever, myalgia (muscular pain), respiratory disorder, and so on.
A sense-negative single strand RNA virus belonging in Orthomyxoviridae family. There are three types, A, B, and C. It causes the influenza disease.
A general term of immune biological defending system except for adoptive immunity in a wide sense. This immune system is found in various organisms, and its antigen is non-specific.
A classification of death causes of and disease made by World Health Organization (WHO). It intends to record the data of death and disease systematically, which is from distinctive country, region at distinctive period, in order to analysis, interpret, and compare. The latest version is ICD-10, consists of 22nd of categories. The URL is http://www.who.int/classifications/ .
A cell which is produced by inducing some genes to a body cell and has same pluripotent ability as embryonic stem cell (ES cell). It was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka's team at Kyoto University. It can settle the ethical problem by disrupting the blastcyst stage cells and is expected to help regenerative therapy. It is the abbreviation of the induced pluripotent stem cell.
A type of sexual reproduction that the size of gametes is same. It can be found protists, fungi, algae, and so on.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is hydrophobic and the essential amino acid for human as being unable to synthesize by itself. The abbreviates are Ile or I.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. It is classified into the EC 5 group.
A variation of a enzyme with the same activity and with small difference of amino acid sequence. This is a term of protein isoform used for only enzymes.
A java-based open source software visualizing molecular structures. It is developed for replacement of obsolete same software Xmol, because the maintenance of the Xmol finished. The URL is http://www.jmol.org/
A software of the macromolecule structure viewer, developed as part of activity of the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj). It can read the molecule structural data with XML format files (PDBMLs) and the text format files (PDB format files), and visualize and operate the molecule structural images interactively, It can also display non-molecular polygon information. Utilizing the feature , the electrostatic surface information from the eF-site database can be display. It requires a Java available circumstance. The URL is http://www.pdbj.org/jV/TOP.html
A enzyme which catalyzes the degrading reaction of the penicillin, a kind of antibiotic.
A kind of glycoprotein which is the main component of basal laminae.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is hydrophobic and the essential amino acid for human as being unable to synthesize by itself. It is contained in almost all proteins. The abbreviates are Leu or L.
A protein domain which includes several leucine every seven residue of alpha helices. It includes protruded regions consist of hydrophobic leucine residues every two rotations, and two domains may form a dimer by engaging each leucine residue as zipper . The transcription regulating factors include this domain have basic amino acid near by the zipper region, which is the DNA binding site and then the factors are also called basic ZIP (bZIP) proteins.
General term of disease with the tumorigenesis and growth of hematopoietic cells. Tumor cells often have chromosomal abnormality. It may be caused such as radioactivity, oncogenic chemicals, and viruses.
A general term of blood cell which has no respiratory pigment.
Small molecule which specifically binds to proteins etc. It includes various molecules such as substrates and coenzymes of the enzyme, and receptor binding molecules such as antigens, antibody, hormones, and neurotransmitter.
A general term of enzymes which are coupled with exergonic reaction. It is also called synthetase, and is classified into the EC 6 group.
A micro structure exists in cell membranes. It is abundant in sphingolipids and cholesterols, and is thought to help the function of transmembrane proteins.
A family of proteins which transport hydrophobic molecules. Members of the family have common beta barrel structure.
A general term of enzyme which catalyzes the reaction of oxidation in biological luminescence.
A general term of light emitting material in chemical luminescence of biology.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze the reaction which cleave a various chemical bond except for hydrolysis and oxidation. It is classified into the EC 4 group.
General term of disease with the tumorigenesis and grouth of lymphatic cells.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It classified into the basic polar side chain amino acid. It is one of the human essential amino acids. It is rich in bean, dairy products, and fish etc. The abbreviation is Lys and K.
A thesaurus database for managing the information of books and journals collected by National Library of Medicine (NLM) in U.S. It is mainly constructed by structured descriptors which is classified into 16 categories. It's name is from the acronym of Medical Subject Headings. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is a hydrophobic and sulfur containing amino acid. It is the essential amino acid for human as being unable to synthesize by itself. The abbreviates are Met or M.
A adrenal cortex hormone which secreted from the adrenal cortex. It is involved in the regulation of water and mineral metabolism. It acts on the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of kidney nephron to facilitate the reabsorption of sodium ion and water and the excretion of potassium ion.
Membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It carries out oxidative phosphorylation, produces ATP, and supply energy to cells. It is the plural form, and the singular form is "mitochondrion".
A general term of small mouse belonging in Muridae family, and Mus genus. Usually the mouse means the house mouse (scientific name is Mus musculus) which often used as the model organism.
RNA molecule that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein. In eukaryotes, a RNA precursor (pre-mRNA) made as a complementary copy of DNA undergoes RNA splicing and becomes mRNA.
A kind of isomerase which catalyzes the transferring reaction of a functional group from one position to another within the same molecule. It is classified into the EC number 5.4.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research. It founded in 1887. The head office is at Bethesda, Maryland. It is composed of 27 institutes and centers. The URL is http://www.nih.gov/ .
A cell composed the nervous system. It consists of a cell body and protrusions from it. There are two type of protrusions, the short is dendrite and the long is axon. The latter composes the nerve fiber. The direction of neurotransmission is from the dendrite, through the cell body, and to the axon. Then transmits to the adjacent neuron via synapse.
A acronym of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
"Material which is secreted from the adrenal medulla and the end of sympathetic nerve. The chemical component is same as the adrenaline without a methyl group. It acts as neurotransmitter, and induces the contraction of peripheral artery and rising of blood pressure. It also arises the fighting or avoidance behavior. The IUPAC name is the 4-(2-Amino-1-hydroxyethyl) benzene-1,2-diol."
A component of nucleic acid such as DNA and RNA. It is classified into the purine base and pyrimidine base according to its structure. The former includes adenine (A) and guanine (G), the latter includes cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U). The bases of A, T, G, and C are utilized in DNA, whereas A, U, G, C are utilized in RNA. A and T join to make base pair by hydrogen bond. G and C join as same.
The Structure of viruses, which consists of genomic material and covering capsule called capsid. In case of viruses without outer capsule called envelop, it is equal to the virion which is the functional unit of viruses.
A globular structure found in chromatin of eukaryotic cells. It is composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins, and is the basic structural unit of chromatin.
Chemical compound that consists of a base, a sugar, and one or more phosphates. It is the structural units of nucleic acid, such as DNA and RNA, the component of coenzyme, and so on.
Short lengths of DNA strand produced near by the replication point. As the direction of nucleotide polymerization is only from 5' end to 3' end, at the replication of lagging strand, which is need to replicate to reverse direction, it is produced at first, and then joined by DNA ligase to form a continuous DNA strand.
Female gametocyte. It produced one ovum and three polar bodies.
Female gametogonium. It is divided into oocytes by mitosis. Derived from oogonium by mitosis.
A hierarchy of biological taxonomy. It is the upper layer of family and the lower layer of class.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze the reaction to transfer electrons from one molecule to another. It is classified into the EC 1 group.
Organism which invades a host organism, disrupts its homeostasis, causes disease to it.
A infectious disease caused by the Bordetella pertussis. The symptom of it is the characteristic convulsive cough seizure. In Japan, it is assigned as the fifth group infectious disease in the enforcement regulation of Law Concerning the Prevention of Infections and Medical Care for Patients with Infections, and vaccinated together with diphtheria and tetanus.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral hydrophobic sidechain amino acid, and one of the human essential amino acid. The abbreviates are Phe and F.
A lipid molecule bound to phosphate which found in various organisms. It is one of the important component of biological membranes and is involved in their various functions.
A hierarchy of biological taxonomy. It is the upper layer of class and the lower layer of kingdom. It is called "phylum" (the plural form is "phyla") in animals, while is called "division" in plants.
A kind of blood cell which is derived from the megakaryocyte in bone marrow by torn off its cytoplasm. It is involved in blood coagulation.
A virus species which belongs to the IVth group (positive single strand RNA, +ss RNA), Picornaviridae family, Enterovirus genus. It causes poliomyelitis.
A kind of linear polymer which is joined amino acids by peptide bonds.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral hydrophobic sidechain amino acid. It is the only imino acid in the protein composing amino acid, which has a covalent bond between sidechain and amino group of main chain. The abbreviates are Pro and P.
A variation of a protein with the same function and with small difference of amino acid sequence.
An open source software visualizing molecular structures. It is available on various platforms such as Windows, MacOS, and Linux etc. The URL is http://pymol.sourceforge.net/
A enzyme which catalyzes the reaction from a pyruvic acid to an acetyl CoA, the last step of glycolysis. In acting, it forms a complex with other enzymes. The EC number is 126.96.36.199。
In glycolysis, it catalyzes the reaction to transfer a phosphate group from a phosphoenolpyruvate to an ADP, and then produce a pyruvic acid and an ATP. The EC number is 188.8.131.52。
A kind of alpha-keto acid which is metabolic intermediate products found in various organisms. The final product of glycolysis.
A diagram indicating allowed torsion angles of bonds between residues of linear macromolecules such as polypeptides or polysaccharides. It is calculated from van der Waals radii of each atom. It suggests the available structures of polypeptide chains or polysaccharides.
A software which visualizes molecule structures. The URL is http://www.rasmol.org/
Process in which DNA molecules broken and then rejoined in new combination. Can occur during meiosis as chromosomal crossover.
A member of worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) which is the depository of information about the three-dimensional structures of large biological molecules. The URL is http://www.pdb.org/pdb/home/home.do
A transcription factor which is specifically found in neuron.
A compound derived from retinol (vitamin A1) replaced the terminal alcohol group to the aldehyde. It consists of two parts, the ring part (trimethyl cyclohexene ring) and the sidechain. There are 16 types of isomers by the difference of sidechain type, the double bond, trans, or cis. The 11-cis type acts as the chromophore of visual pigment.
A family of viruses of which genome is made from single strand RNA and is transcribed to the DNA before growth and gene expression. It is a part of the sixth group (ssRNA-RT) of Baltimore classification. It includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) etc. This word is sometimes used as the meaning all of the ssRNA-RT viruses.
A enzyme which catalyzes the DNA producing reaction from RNA. It is used by virus which has its genome as RNA. The EC number is 184.108.40.206.
A visual pigment contained in photoreceptor cells which distinguishes between light and dark. It consists of opsin protein bound to chromophore 11-cis-retinal. It is a typical G-protein coupled receptor protein, which has seven alpha helices.
A indication value of the protein structural similarity. When comparing structures of two protein molecules, it is defined to be the square-root of average of the square of the distance between each corresponding alpha carbon atom.
Abbreviation of RiboNucleic Acid. Consists of a kind of sugar ribose bound to a phosphate at 3' position and a base at 1' position. Utilizes in gene expression process and so on. See also nucleobase, mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
Selective intracellular degradation of RNA to remove foreign RNAs, such as those of viruses. Utilized to the technique of silencing the expression of selected genes.
A reaction series which removes the gene non-coding region (intron) from a precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) and then links the gene coding region (exon).
A kind of bacteria with rod-shape. The plural form is "bacilli".
A enzyme in the Calvin cycle which catalyzes the reaction from a ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and a carbon dioxide to two 3-phosphoglycerate.
A database which classified proteins based on their structural feature. It's name is the acronym of "Structural Classification Of Protein". It is managed by Centre for Protein Engineering (CPE) at Cambridge University in UK. http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop/
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral polar amino acid. The abbreviates are Ser and S.
Monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized from the triptophan. 5-hydroxytryptamine. It often found in the enterochromaffin cell (EC cell) in the mucosa of small intestine, and also found in hypothalamus and platelet etc. It stimulate the peristaltic movement of small intestine and capillary vessel contraction. It is also included in the synaptic vesicle and acts as neurotransmitter.
Chromosomes involving in decision of sex. Other chromosomes are called autosomes.
A general term of glycolipid which is a ceramide bound to sugar compounds at 1' position hydroxyl group. A kind of sphingolipid.
In the RNA interference (RNAi), it is a small RNA strand which is consist of about 21 base pair, and is produced from foreign double strand RNA such as viruses cleaved by the dicer protein. Then the argonaute protein takes in it to utilize the template for detection of the same kind of foreign RNA strand. This molecule is introduced in the 98th article of Molecule of the Month.
An infectious disease which caused by the smallpox virus. The symptoms of this disease are high fever, eczema, and respiratory distress. The smallpox vaccine eliminates it and WHO decelerates the extermination in 1980.
A cell in organisms which is not involved in reproduction. It includes all the cells except for germline cells. Genetic mutations in these cells will not be passed to next generations.
A species of toothed whales belonging to the Cetartiodactyla order, Cetacea order (suborder), and Physeteridae family. The first protein of which structure was determined by the X-ray crystallographic analysis is a myoglobin from this species.
Male gametocyte. It produced four spermatids. Derived from spermatogonium by mitosis.
Male gametogonium. It is divided into spermatocytes by mitosis.
Male gamete. Produced from spermatid by spermiogenesis.
A kind of complex lipid including ceramides and their derivatives bound to sugar or phosphocholine at the 1' position hydroxyl group. The sugar bound one is called sphingoglycolipid and the phosphoric compound bound one is called sphingophospholipid. It is abundantly found in cell membranes, and is thought to assist functions of membrane proteins,
A primary sphingophospholipid. It is often found in brain tissue, nerve tissue, red blood cells (erythrocytes), and so on of the higher animals.
A general term of phospholipid which is a ceramide bound to phosphoric compounds at 1' position hydroxyl group. A kind of sphingolipid.
A long chain 18-carbon amino alcohol with one unsaturated bond. A kind of sphingoid which is a component of sphingolipid. 2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol.
A kind of elasmobranch belonging to the Squalidae family. It is used for foods. The scientific name is the Squalus acanthias.
A helix-shape bacteria. The plural form is "spirilla". The many spiral one is called spirochete.
An organ involved in the blood storage and degradation, hematopoiesis (blood forming), and immunity.
Polysaccharide which is utilized to energy store in plants.
In tertiary structure (conformation) of protein molecule, conformational group region. Large protein molecules often consist of several domains. Each domain is linked with flexible polypeptide chains.
In the protein structure, it means the partial structure unit composed of secondary structures. It is also called super secondary structure.
A kind of pneumonia caused by a kind of fungus Trichosporon cutaneum. Inhaling the spores of it causes allergic reaction and cough. It onsets mainly in summer.
1) A classification layer of SCOP, protein structural classification. 2)A taxonomical layer, upper of the family, lower of the order or suborder.
The terminal part of the nerve cell closed to the next cell. It secrets neurotransmitter, and deliver signals to the next cell.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze the synthesizing reaction of a chemical compounds. There are two types of enzymes, synthetases which require coupling of a exergonic reaction (EC 6 group), and synthases which are not accompanied by coupling reaction (EC 4 group).
Enzyme to extend the telomera, which get shoter by each cell division.
Structure exists at the end of chromosome of eukaryotic cells. It is composed of specific base sequences and proteins, and protects from unintended DNA repair and degradation. It gradually shorten by cell division. When it is completely lost, the cell division stops. Then it is thought to be involved in the age of cell.
A kind of androgen (mele hormone).
Alkaloid with highly toxicity known as fugu toxin. It is thought to be produced by some kind of bacteria, and concentrated to fugu by the process of food chain.
An annual plant which belongs to Brassicaceae family. Often use in genetic studies as model organisms. The scientific name is Arabidopsis thaliana. The number of chromosomes (2n) is 10.
Organ exists in the inner ear, controlling the equilibrium.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral polar sidechain amino acid, and one of the human essential amino acid. The abbreviates are Thr and T.
A kind of the thyroid hormone.
A basic structural unit (motif) of the protein, which is also called (beta/alpha) 8 barrel. It is found in many kinds of proteins, and most of them has catalytic activity. The name of TIM is the acronym of triose phosphate isomerase.
Protozoan belonging in the Apicomplexa phylum, Coccidiasina subclass, Sarcocystidae family, and Toxoplasma genus. It causes the toxoplasmosis.
An infectious disease which caused by the toxoplasma protozoan. Usually, no symptom will be onset, except for fetuses, infants, and immunocompromised persons. Though it lays its oocysts (eggs) only to the Felidae animals, it may infect from soil or other animals since the oocysts are released via excreted fecalith.
Replication of one strand of DNA into a complementary sequenced RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A general term of enzymes which catalyze the reaction to transfer a functional group from one molecule to another. It is classified into the EC 2 group.
The synthetic reaction from the messenger RNA which includes gene information to the peptide chain.
Base sequences which can move between inside of cell genome. In narrow sense, they only mean DNA sequences which directory move their position, whereas in wide sense, they include retro transposons which are translated to RNA and then reverse translated to another position of genome. They are thought to stimulate the genome change and to be involved in biological evolution.
The general term of fungi which cause tinea (epidermophytosis).
A kind of fungi which causes the summer type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It breeds in the damp place, such as bathroom, kitchen, and inside of air conditioner.
It is also called "transfer RNA".
A protozoan which parasitizes human, horse etc to cause the African sleeping disease. It is a kind of protozoa with flagella and infects by mediation of tsetse fly.
A kind of protease which degrades proteins. It is a type of the endopeptidase cleaving the middle of polypeptide chains at the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues. It acts as activating the other enzyme precursor as well as the digestive enzyme. The EC number is 220.127.116.11。
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral hydrophobic sidechain amino acid and the aromatic amino acid as it has indole ring in its sidechain. It is one of the human essential amino acid. The abbreviates are Trp and W.
A hematophagous fly mediating trypanosomes which cause the African sleeping disease. It is a general term of insects included in Diptera order, Glossinidae family.
Cell population which is derived from own cell of the organism, and grows autonomously. It can be classified into the benign tumor, which is well differentiated and grows slowly, and malignant tumor, which is less differentiated and grows fast. And more, the latter can be classified into epithelial carcinomas and non-epithelial sarcomas etc.
An infectious disease which caused by the Salmonella typhi. In Japan, it is designated as the category II infectious disease by the law.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is classified into the neutral hydrophobic sidechain amino acid and the aromatic amino acid as it has a phenol group in its sidechain. The abbreviates are Tyr and Y.
A small highly conserved protein which is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. It binds to lysines of other proteins and mark them as the target to degradation. The ubiqutin bound protein is degraded by the proteasome.
A kind of electromagnetic ray. The wavelength is shorter than optical light, and is longer then X-ray. The range of wavelength is about between 380nm and 10nm. It has strongly act on chemical reaction. The good examples are sterilizing, vitamin D synthesis, and metabolism facilitation, whereas it may harmful to skin, eye, and immunity.
A integrated database of protein primary structure (amino acid sequence) and its related information. It consists of two kinds of data, TrEMBL whose data is automatically generated, and Swiss-Prot whose data is manually annotated. It is managed by EBI, SIB, and PIR. Its URL is http://www.uniprot.org/
A extensible hollow organ of urinary system, which temporarily stores urine transported from the kidney via ureter.
A kind of acute dermatitis.
A general term of antigen used for prevention and treatment of infectious disease. It is made from attenuated pathogen (live vaccine), inactivated pathogen, metabolite from pathogen, and so on. The name is derived from smallpox vaccine.
One of the twenty amino acids composing proteins. It is hydrophobic and the essential amino acid for human as being unable to synthesize by itself. The abbreviates are Val or V.
A infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. The major symptom is blister. In Japan, this disease is assigned to the fifth category infectious disease in Enforcement Regulation of Law of Infectious disease prevention.
A virus species which belongs to the Ist group (double strand DNA, dsDNA), Herpesviridae family, Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, Varicellovirus genus. It causes varicella.
A toxin which is similar to the shiga toxin produced by dysentery bacillus. It is a exotoxin protein which produced by the O157:H7, one of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and others, and causes the hemorrhagic diarrhea etc.
A basic unit of viruses with particulate structure and infectivity. Viruses exist in this form at the outside of the host cell.
A kind of viruses. Its RNA genome is bare, without the capsule (capsid). The gene does not encodes proteins, depends on its host.
A submicroscopic structure which has no cellular structure and energy production system. It can propagate only in infection host cell. It has its genome either DNA or RNA and is classified into seven groups according to the types of genome, called Baltimore classification.
A kind of lipid soluble vitamin. The deficiency of it causes the nyctalophia, skin disorder, growth inhibition etc. On the contrary, the excess causes organ disorder and abnormality etc, they are called hypervitaminosis A.
Organism belonging to the Tardigrade phylum. It has high ability to tolerate severe circumstances such as dry, hot, cold, high pressure, and radiation by entering into a quiescent state (also called cryptobiosis) with no metabolism.
Infectious disease caused by the West Nile virus. About only 20 percent of infected patients affect. The symptom of it is similar to that of influenza, such as fever, headache, and myalgia. Typically, it is not so serious, but as virus infects the brain, it may cause fatal encephalopathy. As there is no vaccine for human now, the cure is limited for symptomatic treatment. It typically recover for between a few day and a week. The epidemic area is Africa, West Asia, Middle East, Europe, and North America. In Japan, it is assigned as the group 4 infectious disease.
Virus belonging in the group IV (positive single strand RNA, +ssRNA), Flaviviridae family, and Flavivirus genus. It causes the West Nile fever. It growth in the birds, and infects other animals by mediation of mosquitoes.
A organization to maintain the Protein Data Bank (PDB), a single worldwide resource of macromolecular structural data. It consists of four member of groups, the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) group at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj) group at the Institute for Protein Research in Osaka University, and Biological Magnetic Resonance data Bank (BMRB) group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The URL is http://www.wwpdb.org/ .
Electromagnetic ray whose wavelength is about between 10nm and 1pm. It is generated by the transient of electron orbit of atom. It is discovered by Roentgen, German physical scientist. It is utilized for various purpose such as medical diagnosis (roentgen and CT examination etc.), material examination (non-destructive inspection), and crystal structural analysis.
Method to decide the atom arrangement in the crystal lattice by utilizing X-ray diffraction phenomenon.
Originally, it is used as the general term of unicellular fungi. But it often means only the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilized for bread production.
Infectious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It mainly prevails in the tropical area of Latin America and Africa. It mediated by mosquitoes such as Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti. As infected, the liver was affected to develop jaundice.
Virus belonging in the group IV (positive single strand RNA, +ssRNA), Flaviviridae family, and Flavivirus genus. It causes the yellow fever.
A species of fish which belongs to Cyprinidae family. It's about 3.2cm long, and often used as model organisms. The scientific name is Zebra danio. The number of chromosomes (2n) is 50.
A kind of partial structure (motif) which is found in the nucleotide binding proteins. It includes zinc atom to coordinate four cysteine or two cysteine and two histidine, and has a finger like region between the second cysteine and third cysteine/histidine.
A cell derived from fusion of two gametes.